All posts by Jonah Adkins

OpenStreetMap US: We’re Hiring!

OpenStreetMap US is hiring an Executive Director!

OpenStreetMap is the free, open-source map of the world created by volunteers all over the globe. The US chapter, guided by its Board of Directors, supports the OpenStreetMap project in the United States through education, fostering awareness, ensuring broad availability of data, continuous quality improvement, and an active community.

Since our Board is made of (elected) volunteer positions, our time to enact our larger goals is somewhat limited given that these efforts often require massive coordination, planning, and execution. To provide the needed support to the US mapping community, we are hiring our first ever Executive Director.

This is truly a unique time for the OpenStreetMap community, as the Executive Director  will have a chance to make a difference at the local, national, and international level. I recently asked my fellow Board Members why they are excited for this new role.

Ian Dees – Having an executive director means we can expand our ability to build the OpenStreetMap community in the US. There’s so many great ideas we have but none of us have the time to coordinate them. The executive director will help us with these things and keep OpenStreetMap US moving forward.

Maggie Cawley – Prior to joining the board, I had only the slightest idea of how much it took to run a small nonprofit. Board members and generous community members can only do so much with their limited volunteer time. With an Executive Director at the helm, there will be dedicated support not only for the State of the Map US conference and basic admin tasks, but more importantly someone to lead a broader organization strategy, fundraising efforts, and be there to support the local communities and more projects. It will be a change, but hopefully one that positively impacts the broader OpenStreetMap community.

Bryan Housel – OpenStreetMap is in an amazing position right now. People depend on up-to-date maps more than ever, and OpenStreetMap data is being used in popular apps like Snapchat, Pokemon Go, Tinder, and by companies like Facebook, Apple, Microsoft, IBM, and Uber. I’m inspired by what we’ve been able to create with an engaged community of volunteers who care about making the map around them as accurate as possible. Bringing on an executive director can help channel this energy into new projects to measure and improve data quality, communicate our successes, and grow and strengthen our community of mappers.

So, what are you waiting for? Are you interested? Know someone who’d be a great fit? We encourage you to share this announcement within your networks to help us find the right candidate.

The Executive Director Position

The duties of this role cover a broad scope, encompassing organizational program and strategy, as well as fundraising, finance, and marketing. This position will require a high degree of flexibility and creativity, and a collaborative and inventive orientation. 
 
The successful candidate will be mission-driven and passionate about the idea of creating and applying open, accurate geospatial data for the world. This is a role with ample room for growth and creativity, and the successful candidate will come from a diversity of backgrounds. 
Here are some helpful links with more information about the position and the application form:

Direct Link to application form – https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLSdlKdq612m3VkLwj7XzSgQnLa_dvF8fVXwPU_uGUUsT3biYIg/viewform

For any questions, or if you prefer to submit your application in a different manner, please contact us at ed-job@openstreetmap.us with “OSM US Executive Director” included in the subject line.

Maps and mappers of the 2018 GeoHipster calendar — Vanessa Knoppke-Wetzel

Q: Tell us about yourself.

A: I’m really passionate about data visualization, and am a huge advocate that everyone is capable of creating beautiful, well-designed, and user-friendly maps, graphics, and data viz (even if they say “they can’t” because they never learned). I sort of stumbled upon cartography – it never was my original plan, but I’m so very glad I did. My feelings about the importance of balancing design and analysis all began when I attended NACIS in Portland, OR, and a panel was discussing the importance of design in maps vs some that argued it wasn’t as needed anymore in many cases, because of advances in technology. I had no idea how much listening to those discussions would affect me, but ultimately I realized a trend in the talks I give, the research I enjoy (and research I did), and the products I enjoy exploring, all ultimately are related to sharing knowledge, breaking it down to shareable pieces, and exploring how to find new ways of visualizing things… on screens.


Q: Tell us the story behind your map (what inspired you to make it, what did you learn while making it, or any other aspects of the map or its creation you would like people to know).

A: All of the above really is a backdrop for why I made this map (although at the time I had not fully fleshed out and realized all of this). At the time, I was constantly frustrated with map design, and was always “waiting” to learn more about how to design maps to look a certain way, based on certain styles or aesthetics that had to be defined (like cubism, or impressionism). My mom is an artist, and I had spent so much of my life constantly surrounded by art, exploring art mediums (my mom always picked up new creative hobbies), and taking all the art classes I could. This, I think, is why I kept expecting there to be a book or class that explained what I was searching for, which ultimately was how to translate the aesthetic of maps off-screen to on-screen: what techniques did I need to learn and practice to learn how to do X? I got frustrated, and as a result, decided to create a map on-screen actually mimicking brushstrokes (I love painting). I should note here, one of my secondary frustrations was that neither Illustrator nor Photoshop could ever approximate the particular brush-strokes and looks I wanted them to. I knew there had to be products out there besides these “standard ones” that weren’t just CLONING a brush-look, but creating a better approximation of what happened. Corel Painter, as it turns out, was the solution – at least, one of them. Not only does it have a multitude of brush types, but it goes beyond brushes (sponges… pens… so many things). Additionally, there are different background textures that can be applied, and the different paper textures also are programmed to react differently to different paints, brushes, ‘wetness’ of paint, etc. Really fantastic. Anyway: this map was me exploring texture and paint. The topic is also near and dear to my heart – Madison, WI has so many beautiful places to run, so I wanted to show my favorite places. Finally, I always had admired the iconography of old maps, so I decided to draw some “detailed, but sketchy” icons for my favorite parts of the running routes.


Q: Tell us about the tools, data, etc., you used to make the map.

A: I used my mental map for the creation – a very purposeful choice, as the world in our head bends differently than accurate data ;), Corel Painter 12, and a drawing tablet.

 

Maps and mappers of the 2018 calendar: Andrew Zolnai

Live WebScene

Q: Tell us about yourself.

A: I’m a geologist by training and turned to computer mapping and GIS 30 years ago in Canada. Why? I took eight years high school Latin in France, and while I cannot write code I sure can fix it… Handy on Unix then Java scripts when you’re posted from Bako thru BK to Baku (that’s Bakersfield CA, Bangkok and Azerbaijan). So I’ve been in the petroleum service sector all my life, crossing over to remote sensing, geodata management and web services as GIS is apt to do. After hours, I do VGI (volunteered geographic information) to help academics and agencies find free data and publish (almost) free maps, and thus promote better citizen engagement.

Q: Tell us the story behind your map (what inspired you to make it, what did you learn while making it, or any other aspects of the map or its creation you would like people to know).

A: Oil & gas has a fantastic array of 3D subsurface data currently locked up in expensive and bespoke software and services. Using Esri for Personal Use for VGI work in England, working with US and Norwegian business partners Eagle Info Mapping and Geodata, and pulling basic data from Esri and US Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, helped conflate all the relevant data in one simple 3D stack in the US Gulf of Mexico. Posting on WebScene displays a vast array of data in an easily-accessible form, to help engage agencies, operators and the public around complex geo-science. This is critical in matters ranging from smart fields (like smart cities, only in oil & gas) thru emergency response to environmental protection and beyond.

Q: Tell us about the tools, data, etc., you used to make the map.

A:

– Esri ArcGIS Pro and Web Scene, and Geodata Seismic extension.

– Seafloor bathymetry: Esri data.

– Oilwell polylines, surface block and subsurface strata polygons, and salt dome multi-patch: US BOEM open data and courtesy Eagle Info Mapping.

– Seismic imagery not local and courtesy Geodata.

2018 GeoHipster Calendar is Now Available

We’re pleased to announce that the 2018 GeoHipster calendar is available to order! Thanks to all who submitted maps for the calendar.

If your map made it into the calendar, we will send you a complimentary copy (please email pbr@geohipster.com for details).

Note: We’re switching print-on-demand vendors this year on a trial basis. The good news is the calendar costs less this year! The bad news? Previewing the content requires Flash. (Say it with us now, “ew”!) But trust us, the maps included are just as funky, unique, artful, and hipster-ish as in years past. If you’re really curious, Kurt Menke gave us a preview of his submission in November. Besides, what other calendar can you buy that has PostGIS Day marked on it?

Many thanks to Jonah Adkins for the cover design and image processing, and Bill Dollins for organizing the effort on behalf of the GeoHipster Advisory Board. Also, special thanks to our guest judges from recent years for helping us out!

Next year we aim to have a new way to propose map submissions for the 2019 calendar all year round. But in the meantime, get your 2018 calendar now, and pick up one for a friend (or your boss) while you’re at it. Have a great holiday season!

Maps and Mappers of the 2017 GeoHipster Calendar: Nathaniel Jeffrey

Nathaniel Jeffrey – August

Q: Tell us about yourself.

Before I fell into GIS, my studies in Environmental Science led me to a freshwater conservation project in Kenya, and down sewer pipes in my home city of Melbourne. Honestly, sewers are kind of fascinating if you have a background in biology.  You think tapeworms can only survive in a digestive tract?  Think again!

Professionally, for the last 10 years I’ve worked as a GIS analyst for Urbis, which is an international urban planning consultancy.  It’s an ever-changing, data-driven job, which makes it a fun geo playground.

Apart from that: I cook, I eat, I game, I poke Raspberry Pis while frowning, and I travel (mostly to Japan, it seems).

Q: Tell us the story behind your map (what inspired you to make it, what did you learn while making it, or any other aspects of the map or its creation you would like people to know).

I’ve lived in Melbourne for 25 years after coming over from the USA with my parents as a kid.  And as any Melburnian will tell you if you give them half a chance, it’s the World’s Most Liveable City.

So one of the big factors influencing “liveability” is the ability of a city’s infrastructure to adequately service its growing population. Melbourne has been growing at a rate over 2% per year for more than a decade, adding 80,000+ new people every year. Melbourne’s population has grown from just over 3 million in 1991 to 4.5 million today, and is projected to hit 6 million by 2031.  I can’t do much to solve the many political headaches that spring up due to such rapid growth, but I sure can make a map.

Q: Tell us about the tools, data, etc., you used to make the map.

The population data I used is a mix of counts from past censuses (1991 to 2011), and future projections (2016 to 2036).  I would have loved to go further back in time, but the small-area population data isn’t easy to come by.

I converted the population counts for each year into a raster surface representing population density, and then smoothed the heck out each one.  This was a bit tricky, because I wanted to generalise the data enough to create an easily-readable map, but I didn’t want to misrepresent the truth in the underlying data.

Through trial and error, I then found a density value that more or less matched up with the edge of the suburban fringe for each year, based on aerial and planning maps. Applying that density cutoff to each year gave me the isopleths you can see on the map — lines of constant density.

Obviously this approach makes the assumption that the chosen density threshold has accurately represented to suburban boundary in the past, and will continue to do so in the future.  This might not be the case, with a shift towards higher density developments at the urban fringe.  But I think the approach is fine for a map that’s just trying to give a high-level view of the amoeba-like spread of Melbourne’s population.  I would hope that no one tries to make any policy decisions based on this map!

Cartographically I went with a dead simple basemap — just roads and locality names for context.  I made a deliberate effort to label locations where interesting things were happening in the data — lots of growth in a given year, for example.  The colour scheme I chose for the isopleths is…striking.  What can I say; it’s tricky to find ten colours that are distinct enough when placed next to one another, but still look reasonably harmonious as a whole.  I had a bit of fun with the look of the title and legend — I’m no graphic designer, but I like to dabble in design, and steal things that look cool.

GeoHipster Mixtape Volume 2

GeoHipster Mixtape Volume 2

Last April we published the first GeoHipster Mixtape,  a look into the tunes we chill to, scream to, and grind to during the work day. This is Volume 2.

On most days we listen to the soundtrack of work:  phones, email notifications, office chatter, or the sound of the city. For some of us our daily soundtrack is a carefully curated playlist of our favorite tunes. Being in the latter group, music can provide the white noise needed to push through an hour of getting the labels “just right”, or the inspiration that sparks the fix for that problem with your code.

I was curious about what others are listening to during the day — what does a geohipster listen to?

As you might expect, asking anyone who likes music to pick a few songs can be a near-futile task. A desert island playlist would be drastically different from a top side one, track ones playlist. Making a mixtape is subtle art, there are many rules — like making a map. I recently talked to several of our interesting colleagues in geo to see what tunes get them through the day. I asked the impossible: pick  3 tracks they love to share for a mixtape.

For your listening and reading pleasure we have hand-crafted a carefully-curated playlist from the geohipsters below, complete with liner notes of the cool work they do while listening to the tracks they picked.

Ps. i couldn’t help but add a few selections of my own.
Sorry/Not Sorry
jonah

For your enjoyment, a YouTube playlist — the GeoHipster Mixtape Volume 2


 Brooke Harding @BrookEHarding  || GIS Specialist at USAID-Macfadden

Brooke is a Cartographer and Data Analyst specializing in Europe & Asia and government acronyms. Outside of the office she’s all about supporting her fellow #geopeeps through organizations like the NACIS (Check out their October 2017 conference in Montreal, eh?) and eating her way through #geobreakfastdc one waffle at a time.

  • Paul Simon feat. Chevy Chase – Call Me Al
  • T-Pain – NPR Tiny Desk Concert
  • Nahko and Medicine for the People – Black as Night

John Nelson  || Cartographer at Esri

John works in a small wooden shed in his back yard. He does everything from making points on a map glow like fireflies to hacking up cartographic techniques to use on your next map.

 

  • Seu Jorge – Changes (from The Life Aquatic with Steve Zissou)
  • Sigur Rós – Hoppípolla
  • Flatt & Scruggs – Doin’ My Time (from 16 Original Bluegrass Hits)

Cristen Jones // UI designer

Cristen’s an urban planner by training and used to be one of those civic hackers found at Boston-area hackathons and meetups. She’s worked with Code for Boston on and , but more recently    joined Maptime Boston as a co-organizer.

  • Childish Gambino – Break
  • Madeon – Pop culture
  • Daddy Yankee – Shaky Shaky

Dylan Moriarty // Illustrator & Cartographer

Dylan is bad at writing bios, but he has a swell website — believes in open source — loves hand-made maps & hand-drawn elements — helps run GeobreakfastDC & MaptimeDC () — works with the Humanitarian OpenStreetMap Team & designed Missing Maps — spends most waking hours listening to tunes

  • Buddy Rich – Norwegian Wood
  • tUnE-yArDs – My Country
  • Medeski, Martin & Wood – Let’s Go Everywhere

Amy Smith  @wolfmapper // Uber
Policy research, data science & mapping at Uber. Thinks a lot about cities, maps, and transportation. Sometimes writes about them too. Proud GeoHipster interviewer and board member.

 

  • Todd Rundgren – Hello Its Me
  • YMCK – Magical 8Bit Tour
  • Gillian Welch – Hard Times

Hannes  // HafenCity Universität Hamburg

Hannes breaks GDAL doing crazy things, procrastinates with Shapely doing silly things, and enjoys QGIS doing useful things.

 

  • L.S.G. Transmutation (reworked)
  • Bohren & Der Club of Gore – On Demon Wings
  • Wolfgang Hartmayer – Every Day

Juliet Eldred   // Student at the University of Chicago

Juliet is a Geography/Visual Arts double-major, which means she spends a lot of time making and looking at maps. When she’s not sleeping, biking, or yelling at QGIS, she runs the geospatial meme Facebook group “I feel personally attacked by this relatable map” and works as a DJ at WHPK, her school’s radio station.

  • Built to Spill – Car
  • Sleater-Kinney – Light Rail Coyote
  • Emperor X – Wasted on the Senate Floor

Maps and Mappers of the 2017 GeoHipster Calendar: Mark Brown

Mark Brown MSc – February

Tell us about yourself.

I am an ecologist and conservationist with strong technical skills in GIS & Remote Sensing. My interests lie in the application of geospatial technologies to help solve ecological and environmental problems. I love developing novel techniques in areas where these technologies might not have been previously used.

For the past several years I have been working on landscape scale habitat restoration schemes such as the Yorkshire Peat Partnership in the uplands of northern England. There is a very special type of habitat found here known as a blanket bog. Referred to as the ‘rainforests’ of the UK, they are home to many unique plants and animals. These areas of land are not covered by trees however, but a ‘blanket’ of peat material that has formed over thousands of years through the accumulation of dead plant material such as Sphagnum Mosses. Due to this they act as a massive carbon sink. They are also a very important source for much of our drinking water and help to regulate runoff and therefore flooding. They are also an important site for leisure and recreation.

Despite this, most of these habitats are in a heavily degraded state. Mismanagement of this land through burning and overgrazing, as well as natural causes such as wildfires, is causing much of it to erode away. Once peat is exposed to the elements, it rapidly wears away releasing carbon and entering waterways, where it turns the water a brown colour similar to English Breakfast tea. Peat that is dissolved in waterways is causing a problem for water companies, as they have to spend millions of pounds each year to remove the peat through chemical treatments.

The project I work on aims to reverse degradation of the blanket bog by providing the stable conditions necessary for its recovery

In order to do this we need to identify those areas currently undergoing or most at risk of erosion and this is where I come in.

As well as being qualified with an MSc in Geographical Information Systems, I am also a certified Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) pilot. I use a fixed-wing drone known as a senseFly eBee to capture aerial imagery and to generate digital surface models (DSMs) of the habitats that we work on. This data is of a very high resolution (up to 1.5cm!). This gives me the capability to examine and analyse the blanket bogs in an unprecedented level of detail.

I use this data within GIS and remote sensing software to carry out a whole range of analyses. This includes but is not limited to topographic modelling, hydrological analysis, feature extraction, Object-Based Image Analysis (OBIA) to detect different types of vegetation communities and exposed peat, 3D visualisation, and the creation of cross-sectional profiles to determine the dimensions of eroding gullies.

If you’re sat there reading this and wondering what on earth is a blanket bog?! I’d suggest having a look at the Yorkshire Peat Partnership Facebook page. There are lots of interesting photographs of the landscapes as well as our restoration works and imagery of the UAV in action. See link below:

https://www.facebook.com/YorkshirePeatPartnership/

Tell us the story behind your map (what inspired you to make it, what did you learn while making it, or any other aspects of the map or its creation you would like people to know).

I’m sorry to admit it but blanket bogs just aren’t sexy! With no charismatic fauna, cold, wind and rain, to the untrained eye there’s not really much there. They are often seen as barren wastelands. However if you delve down among the undergrowth, there are many interesting species of lichens, mosses, and England’s only carnivorous plants!

This map was part of a series of images that I created in an effort to make blanket bogs more interesting to the public eye. It has been used in Yorkshire Peat Partnership reports as well as at international conferences.

I was interested in creating a series of photorealistic terrain models of blanket bogs. I visualised the terrain in open-source 3D modelling software with a light source over a white background. This creates the interesting shadow effect so the terrain looks like it is floating over a white surface.

This was a departure from my usual workflow as I normally work exclusively with GIS software such as QGIS. However I found that this was providing too many limitations for graphical visualisations and it was interesting to learn an entirely new piece of software from scratch.

Actually I was quite surprised to be selected for the calendar. I think if I was to enter the image again I would put more information on the image regarding what the image actually is and how it was generated. Hindsight however is a wonderful thing!

I was super pleased to be selected and hopefully this will introduce a very novel application of GIS and remote sensing to a wider audience!

Tell us about the tools, data, etc., you used to make the map

The UAV I used to survey the site was a senseFly eBee. (https://www.sensefly.com/drones/ebee.html). This is a small fixed-wing drone that is proving to be one of the most popular commercially-available drones for surveying and mapping purposes. The UAV is fully automated and flies along pre-defined transects,taking photographs along the way.

The imagery that was captured was then processed within photogrammetry software known as Pix4D Mapper (https://pix4d.com/). This software is used to generate point clouds, digital surface and terrain models, orthomosaics, and textured models.

The resulting orthophotograph and digital surface model was then imported into Blender (https://www.blender.org/) where the image was rendered. Blender is an open source 3D modelling software package. It is more commonly used for 3D art, animation, and the creation of computer games.

Maps and Mappers of the 2017 GeoHipster Calendar: Ralph Straumann

Ralph Straumann – June

Tell us about yourself.

I’m a consultant, data analyst, and researcher with EBP in Switzerland and the Oxford Internet Institute in the UK. My background is in geography, with a PhD in geoinformation science from the University of Zurich. Besides GIS I studied remote sensing, cartography, and political science. In my work for EBP I assist clients with data analysis tasks, do strategy and organizational consulting, and build tools, geodata infrastructures, and workflows. In my free time I occasionally blog about GIS, data, and visualization.

Tell us the story behind your map (what inspired you to make it, what did you learn while making it, or any other aspects of the map or its creation you would like people to know).

A few years ago, Stephan Heuel and I developed a raster-based walking time analysis tool. This product has since matured into Walkalytics. Based on OpenStreetMap and/or cadastral surveying data, we can infer the time it takes somebody to walk to or from a place, construct pedestrian isochrones, and compute quality of service metrics, e.g. for public transit. We can carry out these types of analyses world-wide, at high resolution, very fast, and taking into account the topography. The map serves as an illustration of the capabilities and versatility of Walkalytics.

Tell us about the tools, data, etc., you used to make the map.

I used our Python Walkalytics client and a test subscription to the Walkalytics API to derive the data for the map. Besides, I used data from the (in my opinion, fantastic) Natural Earth. I then designed the map entirely in ArcMap. I tried to move away from the ArcGIS defaults. I’m simplifying, but I think a map tends to be good when you cannot tell straight-away which software has been used to make it. For the interested: Below you can see a GIF of some of the revisions of my map for the GeoHipster calendar:

Maps and Mappers of the 2017 GeoHipster Calendar: Jan-Willem van Aalst

J.W. van Aalst, Ph.D. – November

Tell us about yourself.

I’m a cartographic designer and data analyst. I live and work in The Netherlands. My background is in computer science; I did my Ph.D. on knowledge management at Delft University. These days I mostly advise the Dutch Emergency services on (geo) information management.

Tell us the story behind your map (what inspired you to make it, what did you learn while making it, or any other aspects of the map or its creation you would like people to know).

The map is part of my Dutch OpenTopo series, which I designed to supply the Dutch emergency responders with the most up-to-date topographic maps possible. I’ve always experimented with combining the best ingredients of various map sources, including the geospatial base registries published by the Dutch government as Open data. The result is now available at www.opentopo.nl.

Tell us about the tools, data, etc., you used to make the map.

The map was made using QGIS. Some post-processing of the raster output of QGIS is done using GDAL. The map data is stored in a PostgreSQL/PostGIS database. The data itself is made “PostGIS-ready” using the Dutch NLExtract tools developed by some geo-wizards also associated to the Dutch branch of OsGeo.org. The map features data from several Dutch Base Registries (BRT, BAG, BGT, BRK) and also contains various elements extracted from OpenStreetMap.

Maps and Mappers of the 2017 GeoHipster Calendar – Johann Dugge and Juernjakob Dugge

Johann Dugge and Juernjakob Dugge – May

Johann Dugge and Juernjakob Dugge
www.papercraftmountains.com

Tell us about yourself.

Johann: I model packing processes of consumer products like laundry detergent to optimise the package design and manufacturing lines at Procter & Gamble in their Brussels office. 

Juernjakob: I work on software for optimising water and wastewater treatment processes. So our day jobs have only little to do with mapping. However, we’ve been exposed to cartography and particularly terrain models from a young age: Our father is a geomatics engineer, and our parents have been collecting raised relief maps for as long as we can remember.

Tell us the story behind your map (what inspired you to make it, what did you learn while making it, or any other aspects of the map or its creation you would like people to know).

Juernjakob: I was following Daniel Huffman’s tutorial on generating shaded reliefs using 3D rendering software, and slightly adapted the approach by first converting the DEMs to triangulated irregular networks before rendering them. The faceted appearance reminded me of the low-poly papercraft models that have been in vogue for a while, and I thought it might be fun to build a terrain model out of paper.

Johann: In June 2015 as we were cycling over the hills of Belgium we discussed what the qualities of such a model would have to be to be considered “optimal”. When we returned home to Brussels and Stuttgart we both started to adapt existing triangulation algorithms for this specific problem. In the end I came up with a solution that strikes a good balance between terrain fidelity and having a small number of triangles, avoiding difficult-to-assemble thin and tiny triangles as much as possible. My background in numerical optimisation certainly came in handy for this.

We presented the first results at the ICA Mountain Cartography Workshop in April 2016 and received a lot of very encouraging feedback. Since then we have been working on new models – the Matterhorn is already available through our site www.papercraftmountains.com. Also keep an eye out for Mount Fuji which will be released shortly!

Tell us about the tools, data, etc., you used to make the map.

We developed the triangulation algorithm in MATLAB. The elevation data comes from the USGS National Elevation Dataset, the orthophoto from the US National Agriculture Imagery Program. The quality of publicly available data in the United States is amazing, the rest of the world still has a lot of catching up to do in this regard.

Blender is used to add the stiffening structure to the 3D model. Pepakura is an unfolding software for paper model layouts and the final touches are done in Inkscape.